Civil war

Civil war gy MaitcDV17 110R6pR 2011 s pagos The American Civil War (1861—1865) was a civil war in the United States of America. Eleven Southern Slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America («the Confederacy») to fight for independence. Twenty (mostly Northern) free states in which slavery already had been abolished, and five Slave states that became known as the «border states» supported the federal government. These twenty-five states, referred to as the Union, had a much larger base of population and industry than the South.

After four years f warfare, mostly within the Southern states, the Confederacy surrendered and slavery was outlawed everywhere in the nation. Issues that led to war were resolved only in the Reconstruction Era that followed the restoration of the Union. In the presidential election of 1860 the Re ublican Party, led by Abraham Lincoln, the expansion ors of slavery beyond th alr y existed. The Republicans were str g adv alism and in their nati 1860 platform explici f disunion as avowals of treason.

A , but before the new administration took office on March 4, 1861 , seven Cotton states declared their secession and joined together to form the Confederate States of America. Swlpe to vlew next page America. Both the outgoing administration of President James Buchanan and the incoming administration rejected the legality of secession, considering it rebellion. The other eight slave states rejected calls for secession at this polnt. No country in the world recognized the Confederacy. Hostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a U. S. ilitary installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Lincoln responded by calling for a volunteer army from each state to recapture federal property. This led to declarations of secession by four more slave states. Both sides raised armies as the Union seized control of the border states early in the war and established a naval blockade that virtually ended cotton sales on which the South depended for its wealth, and blocked most imports. Land warfare in the East was inconclusive in 1861-62, as the Confederacy beat back Union efforts to capture its capital, Richmond, Virginia.

In September 1862, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation made ending slavery in the South a war and dissuaded the British from intervening. [3] Confederate commander Robert E. Lee won battles in Virginia, but in 1863 his northward advance was turned back with heavuy asualties after the gattle of Gettysburg. To the west, the Union gained control of the Mississippi River after their capture of Vicksburg Mississippi, thereby splitting the Confederacy in t RI_IFS after their capture ofVicksburg, Mississippi, thereby splitting the Confederacy in two.

The Union was able to capitalize on its long- term advantages in men and materiel by 1864 when Ulysses S. Grant fought battles of attrition against Lee, while Union general William Tecumseh Sherman captured Atlanta and marched to the sea. Confederate resistance ended after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. The American Civil War was one of the earliest true industrial wars. Railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively. The practices of total war, developed by Sherman in Georgia, and of trench warfare around Petersburg foreshadowed World War in Europe.

It remains the deadliest war in American history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 soldiers and an undetermined number of civilian casualties. According to John Huddleston, «Ten percent of all Northern males 20-45 years of age died, as did 30 percent of all Southern white males aged Victory for the North eant the end of the Confederacy and of slavery in the United States, and strengthened the role ofthe federal government. The social, political, economic and racial issues of the war decisively shaped the reconstruction era that lasted to 1877.

Reconstruction Reconstruction began during the war (and continued to 1877) in an effort to solve the issues caused by reunion, 31_1fS began during the war (and continued to 1877) in an effort to solve the issues caused by reunion, specifically the legal status of the 1 1 breakaway states, the Confederate leadership, and the freedmen. Northern leaders during the war agreed that victory ould require more than the end of fighting. It had to encompass the two war goals: secession had to be repudiated and all forms of slavery had to be eliminated.

Lincoln and the Radical Republicans disagreed sharply on the criteria for these goals. They also disagreed on the degree of federal control that should be imposed on the South, and the process by which Southern states should be reintegrated into the Union. These disputes became central to the political debates after the Confederacy collapsed. 1861 First Batue of Bull Run. Public demand pushed General-in-Chief Winfield Scott to advance n the South before adequately training his untried troops. Scott ordered General Irvin McDowell to advance on Confederate troops at Manassas Junction, Virginia.

McDowell attacked on July 21, and was initially successful, but the introduction of Confederate reinforcements resulted in a Southern victory and a chaotic retreat toward Washington by federal troops. July 1861 General McDowell Is Replaced. Suddenly aware of the threat of a protracted war and the army’s need for organization and training, Lincoln replaced McDowell with General George 406 S the army’s need for organization and training, Lincoln replaced McDowell with General George B. McClellan. July 1861 — A Blockade of the South.

To blockade the coast of the Confederacy effectively, the federal navy had to be improved. By July, the effort at improvement had made a difference and an effective blockade had begum The South responded by building small, fast ships that could outmaneuver Union vessels. port Royal, South carolina 1861-1862 On November 7, 1861, Captain Samuel F. Dupont’s warships silenced Confederate guns in Fort Walker and Fort Beauregard. This victory enabled General Thomas W. Sherman’s troops to occupy first port Royal and then all the famous Sea Islands of South Carolina. CiVil war: In U. S. istory, the conflict (1861-65) between the Northern states (the Union) and the Southern states that seceded from the Union and formed the Confederacy. It is generally known in the South as the War between the States and is also called the War of the Rebellion (the official Union designation), the War of Secession, and the War for Southern Independence. The name Civil War, although much criticized as inexact, is most widely accepted. Great men (and women) make great leaders. This listing Will provide us with some of the people that were of major importance in the Civil War. SÜFS